分かっていること Known


It is now well established that developmental decisions can be overridden by artificial induction of combinations of “core” TFs that yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells or direct lineage conversion (Hanna et al., 2010, Morris and Daley, 2013, Orkin and Hochedlinger, 2011, Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006, Vierbuchen and Wernig, 2011). https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(14)00229-3


Increasing evidence suggests that certain malignant tumors also depend on a cellular hierarchy, with privileged subpopulations driving tumor propagation and growth. https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(14)00229-3

分かっていないこと Unknown


However, despite extensive studies, many components of TLR and other biological networks are unknown, and many genes associated with disease have not been assigned to a function or a pathway.  引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(11)01270-0

It has been difficult to reconcile some of these opposing data, and it is unclear whether these two effector T cell populations are related to one another or are independent subsets with distinct origins. 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(21)01333-7

While most of the studies have focused on the biology of virus-specific CD8 TRM cells, basic questions regarding CD4 TRM still remain unanswered. For example: Where do these cells come from; What is the cellular origin of CD4 TRM cells; Which environmental signals maintain them into the tissue; and finally, Are CD4 TRM cells able to rapidly respond to a second challenge? 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)30831-1

In contrast, mechanistic understanding of dietary modulation of small intestine (SI) physiology, where the majority of dietary exposures and interactions take place remains elusive.  引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)31069-2


However, the mechanisms and consequences of these multi-faceted interactions are still poorly understood.  引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)31564-6

Which of the numerous cell subsets in a tumor contribute to the response, how their interactions are regulated, and how they are spatially organized within tumors remain poorly understood (Cardenas et al., 2021; Saltz et al., 2018). 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(21)00945-4


In the nervous system, although multiple families of guidance cues have been found in the last decade, our understanding of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms leading from the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton remains limited (Mueller 1999).  引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(01)00530-X


Nevertheless, the true extent of TCR cross-reactivity, and its role in T cell immunity, remains a speculative issue, largely due to the absence of quantitative experimental approaches that could definitively address this question (Mason, 1998, Morris and Allen, 2012, Shih and Allen, 2004, Wilson et al., 2004, Wucherpfennig et al., 2007). 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(14)00476-0


However, understanding the precise molecular mechanisms influencing progenitor cells is precluded by limited knowledge of stromal cell identities in the lung. 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)30864-4#%20

Mutations that cause TSC are spread over the entire sequences of both TSC1 and TSC2 (26,–29), but mechanistic understanding of the functional consequences is precluded by the lack of biochemical and structural information. 引用元:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025687/



The extent to which unidirectional differentiation hierarchies underlie tumor heterogeneity remains controversial (Visvader and Lindeman, 2012).


This raises the intriguing possibility that sensory neurons targeting distinct peripheral sites may contribute differently to immune responses by engaging in local tissue-specific sensory neuro-immune circuits. 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)31564-6




We hypothesize that mapping the routes toward tumorigenesis in precursors of MSI-H and MSS CRCs will uncover mechanisms that define the CRC cellular landscape and identify targets with diagnostic or therapeutic utility. 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(21)01381-7


only a subset of such genes is activated in response to a given signal. Thus, a central problem in signal transduction is how this specificity is achieved. 中略 An excellent model for studying this problem is provided by the virus-inducible enhancer of the human interferon-p (IFND) gene (reviewed by Maniatis et al., 1992; Thanos et al., 1993; Tjian and Maniatis, 1994). https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=0092-8674%2895%2990136-1




Drosophila provides an attractive system to understand the logic of olfactory perception because flies exhibit complex behaviors controlled by an olfactory system that is anatomically and genetically simpler than that of vertebrates. 引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(03)00004-7



  1. “using” vs “by using” それとも”by”, “with”? 実験・解析の手段・方法を表す語句を正しく選ぶ






  1. theProust Phenomenon プルースト効果[現象]香りや味などが特定の出来事や人などを思い出させる現象のこと。(アルク


Odor-evoked memory or the “Proust phenomenon” from the eponymous literary anecdote where Marcel Proust took a bite of madeleine biscuit that had been dipped in Linden tea and was suddenly transported to a long forgotten moment in his childhood, occurs when an odor triggers the recollection of a meaningful past personal episode. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039451/


I raised to my lips a spoonful of the tea in which I had soaked a morsel of the cake. No sooner had the warm liquid, and the crumbs with it, touched my palate than a shudder ran through my whole body, and I stopped, intent upon the extraordinary changes that were taking place. An exquisite pleasure had invaded my senses, but individual, detached, with no suggestion of its origin. 中略 I was conscious that it was connected with the taste of tea and cake, but that it infinitely transcended those savours, could not, indeed, be of the same nature as theirs.  中略 And suddenly the memory returns. The taste was that of the little crumb of madeleine which on Sunday mornings at Combray (because on those mornings I did not go out before church-time), when I went to say good day to her in her bedroom, my aunt Léonie used to give me, dipping it first in her own cup of real or of lime-flower tea. (SWANN’S WAY Remembrance Of Things Past, Volume One 『失われた時を求めて』第1篇『スワン家のほうへ』By Marcel Proust  フランス語の原書の英訳)

この小説ではどちらかというと味覚と記憶と書いているので、嗅覚と記憶の結合の強さをいう例としては全然ベストではないようが気が自分はするのですが、どうなのでしょう。食べたものに関して味覚と関連した記憶というのは自分は全く思い当たりません。強いていえば、ブルボンの紫色のパッケージのルマンドとか、おなじくブルボンのホワイトロリータを子供の頃によくおやつとして食べていましたが、別に今これを食べても何もエピソードは蘇りません。 ボンタンアメも子供時代によく食べた記憶がありますが、これまた出来事とは結び付きません。

  1. 失われた時を求めて ウィキペディア


  1. Odor-evoked memories: The importance of choosing the right odor Acta Psychologica Volume 236, June 2023, 103932
  2. Development of the function of autobiographical memories evoked by odor scale for older Japanese people Kohsuke Yamamoto, Kengo Yokomitsu, and Takefumi Kobayashi  Front Psychol. 2022; 13: 945002.
  3. An in-depth review of the methods, findings, and theories associated with odor-evoked autobiographical memory Ryan P. M. Hackländer, Steve M. J. Janssen & Christina Bermeitinger Psychonomic Bulletin & Review volume 26, pages401–429 (2019)
  4. An intrinsic association between olfactory identification and spatial memory in humans Louisa Dahmani, Raihaan M. Patel, Yiling Yang, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Lesley K. Fellows & Véronique D. Bohbot Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 4162 (2018)
  5. Olfactory Context-Dependent Memory and the Effects of Affective Congruency Ryan PM Hackländer, Christina Bermeitinger Chemical Senses, Volume 42, Issue 9, November 2017, Pages 777–788,
  6. 嗅覚と自伝的記憶に関する研究の展望 Japanese Psychological Review 2015,Vol. 58, No. 4, 423-450 最も初期の研究は,Laird(1935)による調査研究であるといわれる(Chu&Downes,2000a)。Laird(1935)は,254名を対象に匂い手がかりによる想起経験を調査した。その結果,参加者の5人に4人以上の確率で,日常生活で匂い手がかりによって記憶を思い出した経験があり,しかもその記憶の多くは鮮明であり,かつ情動的2)なものであった。
  7. A review on the neural bases of episodic odor memory: from laboratory-based to autobiographical approaches Anne-Lise Saive, Jean-Pierre Royet, and Jane Plailly Front Behav Neurosci. 2014; 8: 240. Published online 2014 Jul 7. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00240 PMCID: PMC4083449 PMID: 25071494
  8. The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words Emilia Iannilli Maria Larsson 2013, Neuropsychologia
  9. 匂い手がかりが自伝的記憶の特定性におよぼす影響 嗅皮質である梨状皮質は嗅球との神経経路を持つとともに、眼窩前頭皮質への直接経路を持つ。‥ 匂いが引き出す感情的な記憶について、Herz, Eliassen, Beland, & Souza(2004)は fMRI を用い た研究を行っている。思い出を想起させる匂い手がかりによって扁桃体海馬の活動が活発になる 結果から、Herz らは匂いと感情の関連性を指摘している。
  10. Proust Remembered: Has Proust’s Account of Odor-cued Autobiographical Memory Recall Really been Investigated? Chem. Senses 29: 455–458, 2004
  11. A Naturalistic Study of Autobiographical Memories Evoked by Olfactory and Visual Cues: Testing the Proustian Hypothesis Rachel S. Herz and Jonathan W. Schooler The American Journal of Psychology Vol. 115, No. 1 (Spring, 2002), pp. 21-32
  12. Laird, D. A. (1935).What can you do with your nose? Scientific Monthly, 41, 126-130 (JSTORE






例文 Several studies have shown important roles for immune cells in tissue homeostasis. Tissue-resident innate immune cells can play a role in regeneration of the gut (Lindemans et al., 2015, Saha et al., 2016) and other tissues (Aurora and Olson, 2014, Stappenbeck and Miyoshi, 2009). (例文の引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)31316-3

この例文では、一つ目の文では一般的な事柄、抽象的な事柄が述べられていて、次の文ではそれを具体化した内容が書かれています。For example, など具体例を出すためのつなぎ言葉は使われていませんが、意味的に明らかなので文のつながりはスムーズに感じられます。

several studies (一般)→論文紹介(具体)

immune cells (一般)→tissue-resident innate immune cells(具体)

tissue homeostasis(一般)→regeneration of the gut(具体)



例文 How does the anatomic map translate into a functional map? Previous imaging studies in large insects and vertebrates demonstrate that different odors elicit defined spatial patterns of glomerular activation, revealing a functional representation of anatomic map (文献).(例文の引用元:https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(03)00004-7





予備校のノリで学ぶ「大学の数学・物理」 @yobinori チャンネル登録者数 105万人851 本の動画

大学の勉強はおそろしく難しい。そして、大学の授業はおそろしく分かりにくい。高校レベルの勉強でさえ教えるプロが求められているこの時代に、大学の勉強では何故それがないのか。学部生の頃から不思議でたまらなかった。 ‥ そこでふと、こんな考えが芽生え始める「自分なら変えられるかもしれない」 ‥ やってみようかな ‥ そしてその1週間後、1本目の動画「行列式の求め方」を投稿した。(暇人の機動力。大学院生がYouTubeをはじめるまで  ヨビノリたくみ 2018年9月2日 20:26 note.com)

天文物理学者BossB@bossb5553 チャンネル登録者数 18.5万人116 本の動画


米国内科専門医 安川康介の医学チャンネル@yasukawa チャンネル登録者数 13.3万人51 本の動画

早稲田大学 早水桃子研究室@hayamizu チャンネル登録者数 3.4万人34 本の動画


もろぴー有機化学・研究ちゃんねる@morop_ チャンネル登録者数 3.24万人318 本の動画

げのむ / 理系大学院生の日常@user-oo2df8vm4x チャンネル登録者数 1.09万人52 本の動画

Plannergirl 777@plannergirl777 チャンネル登録者数 6890人144 本の動画

たけださんの4コマ宇宙@yonkomauchu チャンネル登録者数 6650人18 本の動画

Hal Tasaki / 田崎晴明@haltasaki チャンネル登録者数 4480人102 本の動画

どうして時間は過去から未来に流れて行くのだろう? マクロな系における不可逆性 / 田崎晴明

研究者ゲンキ@PhD-genki チャンネル登録者数 4250人149 本の動画

Osaki / ゴキと大学院生の生態log@osakilog2738 チャンネル登録者数 3550人24 本の動画

「とものラボ」の楽単ちゃんねる@tomonoLab チャンネル登録者数 3250人185 本の動画

永井俊哉チャンネル@nagai-ja チャンネル登録者数 604人28 本の動画

Shinichi Sasa@shinichisasa2629 チャンネル登録者数 436人1 本の動画










5度目の挑戦で採択された海外学振 KPN KPN 2023年9月30日 22:24 note.com)


2023年9月27日(水)14:00に学振DC1, DC2, PDの選考結果が発表されました。二次採用内定候補の発表もあったようです(最終結果は、1月頃)。海外学振の発表はまた別みたいですね。








学振DC1/DC2に落ちたら考えるべきこと【博士課程】 もろぴー有機化学・研究ちゃんねる チャンネル登録者数 3.24万人




多くの学生が誤解していることとして、学振DCが「博士課程の給付奨学金」のようなものだと思っているという点が挙げられます。(ふたたび)学振にチャレンジするときに 読んでほしいアドバイス 下地理則(九州大学人文科学研究院准教授) 2023年9月28日 17:32 note.com)






  1. 【研究者の適性】自分が研究に向いている人か生き残れるかを占う30の質問















  1. 大上 雅史学振申請書の書き方とコツ 改訂第2版 DC/PD獲得を目指す若者へ(講談社)






  1. 林 健一『こうすれば医学情報が伝わる !! わかりやすい文章の書き方ガイド』(ライフサイエンス出版株式会社)




  1. 書いた申請書をしばらく寝かせて自分で内容を忘れた頃に読み返してみる。
  2. 紙に印刷して読み返してみる。その際、フォントをいろいろ変えて印刷するとさらに効果的。
  3. 自分で声に出して読み返してみる。



  1. https://coefont.cloud/coefonts




ワークショップ「より良い学振申請書(DC1/DC2)を作ろう」(2022年4月10日実施) 東京大学 吉田塁 研究室 チャンネル登録者数 2850人


採用者にインタビュー~苦労人が得た学振の極意~【学振“必勝”講座・2023;其の肆】 水族館マスター · クラゲさんラボ (Dr. クラゲさん) チャンネル登録者数 2540人


【博士課程の前に】やっておくべき3つのこと【最後が一番重要かも】 Osaki / ゴキと大学院生の生態log チャンネル登録者数 3550人

  1. 【学振】オーサキのリアルな申請書作成を公開【与えられた時間はたった2週間】





学振あれこれ:2023年(令和5年度)採用分の変更点およびアドバイス  アカリク公式note 2022年3月15日 15:04)







  1. 東北大学の女性限定教授公募の波紋「教授って合コンサークルか何かなのか?」


  • 採用された職員のうちテニュアになれているのはほんのわずかで「10人に1人くらい」「1割もいない」
  • そもそもテニュアのいすを用意せずに職員を公募
  • 若手研究者がどれだけ頑張っても、テニュアにはなれないことが初めから決まっている
  • テニュア審査を受けるためにポストの照会をしてもらったが、(受け入れ先となる工学部や理学部などの)部局にポストの空きがないので却下され、そこで終わった

(卓越大内定の東北大学が「名ばかりテニュアトラック」、「若手研究者の安定雇用推進」の看板倒れ 9/22(金) 5:32 東洋経済オンライン)


小谷元子 理事・副学長(研究担当)「テニュアトラックとして公募しているのではなく、学際科学フロンティア研究所の教員として公募している。テニュアトラック職として採用するとは一度も言っていないので、テニュア審査(があるかどうか)については説明をする必要がない

(卓越大内定の東北大学が「名ばかりテニュアトラック」、「若手研究者の安定雇用推進」の看板倒れ 9/22(金) 5:32 東洋経済オンライン)


(小谷元子 理事・副学長(研究担当))(卓越大内定の東北大学が「名ばかりテニュアトラック」、「若手研究者の安定雇用推進」の看板倒れ 9/22(金) 5:32 東洋経済オンライン)



  1. 小谷元子 理事・副学長 略歴 氏 名:小谷 元子(こたに もとこ) 学 歴: 昭和58年3月 東京大学理学部数学科卒業 令和 2年4月 東北大学理事・副学長 専門分野:数学、微分幾何学、離散幾何解析学 mofa.go.jp











【学際科学フロンティア研究所 教員公募URL】




上のプレスリリースでは、テニュアトラック制度の説明をとして、明らかに、一般的なテニュアトラック制度の意味で説明しています。そしてそのプレスリリースの中で教員公募URLを貼って「平成31年度採用 新領域創成研究部 助教公募(10名)」の募集をかけているわけです。そしてその募集の要項には、「任期は採用日より3年。(再任審査後最長2年の更新あり)また、東北大学のテニュアトラック推進に関する方針により、任期終了時点で極めて顕著な業績を挙げ優秀と判定された場合で、かつ学内の研究科・研究所等の採用計画と合致した場合は、審査により当該研究科・研究所等の准教授として採用することがあります。」と書いたので、東北大学は「テニュアトラック職として採用するとは一度も言っていない」などというガキの言い訳みたいなことを後から言って逃げ切ろうとしているということのようです。表向きにテニュアトラックと明言している以上、「テニュアトラック職として採用するとは一度も言っていない」などという言い逃れが通用するはずがありません。

  1. 東北大学テニュアトラック普及・定着事業
  2. 東北大学学際科学フロンティア研究所テニュアトラック制度に関する内規
  3. 学際研テニュアトラック制度概要 本プログラムで採用された助教は、テニュアトラック教員として採用後3年目から5年目の間にテニュア審査を受けます。テニュア審査合格者は、テニュアを付与した助教になります。





東北大学 学際科学フロンティア研究所 教員公募 公募人員 助教14名

着任時期 2020 年1月1日以降のなるべく早い時期 または 2020 年4月1日 (応相談)




令和3年新規採用 新領域創成研究部 助教公募(6名)

応募締切:2020年7月28日 17時




令和2年度 新規採用 新領域創成研究部 助教公募(14名)


公募人員 助教 14名

着任時期 2020年1月1日以降のなるべく早い時期 または 2020年4月1日 (応相談)



平成31年度採用 新領域創成研究部 助教公募(10名) 応募締切:平成31年4月1日

着任時期 平成31年 4月 1日




新領域創成研究部は、東北大学 学際科学フロンティア研究所の中の組織のようですし、学際科学フロンティア研究所テニュアトラック制度というウェブサイトにテニュアトラックの説明がありますので、通常のテニュアトラック制度ではないと言われても困りますね。



東北大学大学院理学研究科 数学専攻 テニュアトラック教員公募

職名及び募集人員:テニュアトラック助教 1名

採用予定時期:2023 年 9 月 1 日以降.具体的な着任日は応相談

テニュア付与に係る審査:採用から 3 年目終了時までに中間評価に係る審査を実施し,任期満了の1年 前までにテニュア付与に係る審査を行う.テニュア付与に係る審査に合格した場合にはテニュアを付与 する.また,特に優秀と認められたときには,助教よりも上位の職に昇任させる場合がある.



東北大学大学院理学研究科 物理学専攻 テニュアトラック教員公募(9/30締切)

テニュアトラック助教1名 (ただしテニュア付与に係る審査に合格した場合は准教授)


応募締切 2023年9月30日(土)必着



東北大学加齢医学研究所教員公募 テニュアトラック准教授

勤務形態 常勤(テニュアトラック) 5年以内にテニュア資格審査委員会による審査をへて、任期の定めのない教員として嘱任することがある。

募集期間 令和5年9月30日(日本時間)までhttps://www.idac.tohoku.ac.jp/site_ja/recruit/17416/


東北大学大学院理学研究科 地球物理学専攻 テニュアトラック教員公募

職名及び募集人員:テニュアトラック助教 1名

採用予定時期:2023 年 10 月 1 日以降.具体的な着任日は応相談

テニュア付与に係る審査:採用から 3 年目終了時までに中間評価に係る審査を実施し,任期満了の1年 前までにテニュア付与に係る審査を行う.テニュア付与に係る審査に合格した場合にはテニュアを付与 する.また,特に優秀と認められたときには,助教よりも上位の職に昇任させる場合がある.























  • 企業にとって人を採用すれことは一生面倒を見る覚悟をするということであり、それは莫大な額の先行投資である。
  • テニュアトラックの制度を見ると、10人を採用して3人分のテニュアポストしか用意しないという現象が起こるが、部外者から見れば、一旦採用しても都合が悪ければ放り出してしまうという無責任な姿にしか見えない。一時言われた流動化を口実に無責任が横行しているのではないか。
  • 同様のことが博士課程の学生にも起こっていると見るべき。多くの教員が修士の学生に対しドクターに進学するよう働きかけるが、学位取得者の就職に関して十分なケアをしない場合が多い。大学としてケアをする仕組みもないのが実情だろう。大学側の都合によって進学を勧めたのならそのケアをしないのは無責任のそしりを免れない。

(鳥井委員 審議課題2(知識基盤社会の多様な場で活躍する人材の養成方策) 資料5 第42回、第43回人材委員会の課題設定と方策について(案) 文部科学省)



  1. tenure vocabulary.com Tenure from the Latin tenere means “to hold” and refers to the period of time a person works at a particular job or in an office.



  • 東北大、「名ばかりテニュアトラック」への言い分。直撃に副学長は「独自の制度であり問題ない」 9/22(金) 5:32 YAOO!JAPAN 奥田 貫 : 東洋経済 記者 2023/09/22 5:31 東洋経済オンライン
  • 卓越大内定・東北大が「名ばかりテニュアトラック」 「若手研究者の安定雇用推進」の看板倒れ  YAHOO!JAPAN 奥田 貫 : 東洋経済 記者  2023/09/22 5:30 東洋経済オンライン



30–34 歳の年齢層では、年齢調整異性間性交渉未経験の割合は、1987年から2015 年の間で、女性では 6.2%から 11.9%へ(p 値=0.4)、男性では 8.8%から 12.7%へ増加していた(p 値=0.2)。(日本成人における異性間性交渉未経験の割合の推移について 出生動向基本調査の分析, 1987 – 2015 年 東京大学


【元凶】バキバキ童貞を生んだ東大研究員、上田ピーター博士って?  263,382 回視聴 2021/08/31 バキ童チャンネル【ぐんぴぃ】 チャンネル登録者数 96.9万人


バキバキ童貞を生んだヤバい博士と対談しました【ピーター博士】 406,398 回視聴 2021/10/23 バキ童チャンネル【ぐんぴぃ】 チャンネル登録者数 96.9万人

  1. DT研究者ピーター博士の生い立ち聞いたら面白すぎた! 523,113 回視聴 2021/11/03 【バキバキ童貞】 バキ童チャンネル【ぐんぴぃ】 チャンネル登録者数 96.9万人



DT博士ピーター(東大研究員)が日本のDT問題を解説 311,686 回視聴 2021/11/23 バキ童チャンネル【ぐんぴぃ】 チャンネル登録者数 96.9万人






【童貞研究家・上田ピーター博士インタビュー】日本の「童貞文化」は世界の非モテ男性たちを救うのか!?  2023年08月17日 仲宇佐ゆり 週プレNEWS)


理系に進むという選択自体はそれほど悪いものだとは僕も思いません。ただ一つ、物理的に女がいないという大きなデメリットを除いて…これはなんの脚色もしてない事実ですが、僕の友人、同僚でアラサーの理系出身者の内、実に8割以上が童貞もしくは、それに準ずるもの(?)です。ぶっちゃけ20代の童貞率4割超えに大きく貢献しているのは、間違いなく理系の学生だと思ってます。いや、そうだと断言します。‥ 一方理系だと、一部の高校からリア充組を除いて、彼女持ちの方が珍しい環境なので、むしろ童貞じゃない方が驚かれるみたいなところがあります。これが本当に良くない。あいつもまだだし俺もいいか、と己の非モテに対して茹でガエルの思考停止状態に陥り、時間だけが過ぎていきます。理系に進学してしまい、修羅の道を歩まされている漢達へ さくらいの落書き)

バリバリ童貞ばかり?高学歴ほど童貞卒業遅い説【wakatte.TV】#438 2020/10/19 wakatte.tv チャンネル登録者数 45.5万人



  1. 1日を50円で売る東大生 「最高の留年」で得た出会い 神庭亮介 2016年12月21日 朝日新聞DIGITAL
  2. 「 高野りょーすけ 」の記事一覧 spot-app.jp
  3. 台湾で「伝説の童貞」になったから、現地でYouTuberに挑んできた 2016.12.21



【2022】童貞総集編 11,914 回視聴 2022/12/31 恋channel チャンネル登録者数 3.29万人



【親の前注意】「童貞卒業したヤツ」あるある 1,163,951 回視聴 2020/03/18 レジスタンス チャンネル登録者数 65.2万人



東大卒24歳AD、童貞卒業企画【ローランドプロデュース】Vol.1  4,389,368 回視聴 2021/05/22  THE ROLAND SHOW【公式】 チャンネル登録者数 141万人

  1. 東大卒24歳童貞ADが奇跡の大変身!【ローランドプロデュース】Vol.2
  2. 3年ぶりデートにダメ出し | 東大卒24歳AD童貞卒業企画Vol.3
  3. ローランドの弟が接客で鬼指導|東大卒AD童貞卒業企画Vol.4 2021/07/08
  4. 東大卒童貞に抜き打ちフレンチでダメ出し「テーブルマナー以前の問題だろ」 2021/08/06
  5. 東大卒童貞に隠された黒歴史…「長野の神童」からの転落人生 2021/08/09
  6. 東大卒24歳童貞ADの彼女を募集します! 2021/08/10
  7. 柔道黒帯の東大卒童貞が安保瑠輝也メンバーを倒しにいきました 2021/08/27
  8. 【喧嘩自慢】ブチギレ元ヤンが東大卒童貞に鉄拳制裁…ローランドは!?【安保瑠輝也】 2021/09/05
  9. 【東大卒童貞AD】彼女募集してみたら60人も来てしまった… 2021/10/30
  10. ローランドがモテない童貞改造…本気シバリの彼女候補10人へ【東大卒&童貞卒業への道】 2021/11/03
  11. 彼女候補10人に直電したら、本気ぶりが分かりました【童貞卒業の確認】 2021/11/06 
  12. チェリーを奪い合う4人の女たち【東大卒AD童貞卒業企画】 2021/12/17 
  13. 東大卒童貞争奪戦に美人教師参戦「見た目は負けない」 2021/12/21 
  14. ローランドが見届ける中、東大卒童貞がベッドイン 2021/12/24 
  15. はじめてのGカップ膝枕…焦る東大卒童貞にローランド、ガチ説教 2021/12/25 
  16. 【東大卒童貞争奪戦ファイナル】ローランドも予想外の決断…波乱の展開に 2021/12/30 



  1. 【童貞研究家・上田ピーター博士インタビュー】日本の「童貞文化」は世界の非モテ男性たちを救うのか!?  2023年08月17日 仲宇佐ゆり 週プレNEWS 非モテ男性が歩む4つの道『欺瞞』恋愛工学とか恋愛マニュアルのように、見せかけの技術で女性にモテることを目指す道『破壊』女性に攻撃的になったり、テロ事件を起こしたりする道 『自己改善』女性にとって価値ある男性になるために自分を磨くという、最も建設的な道 『撤退』恋愛市場で敗れてつらい思いをするぐらいなら、撤退して童貞のままで生きるという選択
  2. 日本のセックス あなたはセックスの経験がありますか。 相模ゴム工業株式会社
  3. 経 験 人 数 1 万 人 vs 0 人 【しみけん×バキバキ童貞】 2,434,757 回視聴 2021/05/15  バキ童チャンネル【ぐんぴぃ】 チャンネル登録者数 96.9万人 チャンネル登録< 



  1. 1万人抱いてわかった! モテる男39の法則  2020/10/25 しみけん
  2. 童貞の勝算 2019/11/11 川瀬 智広



教員のなり手不足が問題の教育行政ですが、盛山正仁新文科は「正直、名案はない」 と答えたそうです。











NHK日曜討論 岐路に立つ大学 “学び”をどう守るか 初回放送日: 2023年9月10日

NHK日曜討論 岐路に立つ大学 “学び”をどう守るか


  • 科学・政策と社会研究室 代表理事 榎木 英介
  • 金沢工業大学大学院教授 高橋 真木子
  • BNPパリバ証券GM統括本部副会長/経済財政諮問会議議員 中空 麻奈
  • 東京大学教授 横山 広美
  1. どうする“研究力低下” これからの大学は 初回放送日: 2023年9月10日(NHKオンデマンド)






















  1. 日本が国際競争力を失った納得の理由。先進的な研究開発も“宝の持ち腐れ”にする「企業文化」の残念さ 湯田陽子 Oct. 13, 2021 BUSINESS INSIDER 日本では、意思決定者に対する科学者の助言、科学者と政策決定者のコミュニケーションが行われていません







A Conversation with Susumu Tonegawa
MIT Department of Biology



(13:13~)OK. So I find that this program is great. OK, I mean, we’ll see how it goes. But I think, I joke, but I think the department of biology is really getting humanized and culturalized and this is the part of that direction and I’m very pleased to be here. I don’t exactly know what I’m supposed to do but I have never had the chance to attend the previous ones. [INAUDIBLE] So I am guessing. We have about 45 minutes and my understanding is it will good if we save some time for questions and answers because it’s supposed to be a conversation, right? In any case I give you a little bit of a sort of a lead for conversations.


(14:10~) First of all, many years before most of you were born except Herman Eisen, [LAUGHING] I was a student at University of Kyoto, you know, Kyoto in Japan. I was in chemistry major. But toward the end of the four year schooling, I wasn’t sure whether I want to stay in the field of chemistry. And of course, chemistry turned out to be it’s still very exciting field but I did not know enough of it.  And I was looking for something new to do for graduate school. And someone told me that– this is 1962. So many, many years ago. Someone told me that the new biology emerging in America, primarily in the United States and partly in Europe, that it’s called the molecular biology. And I had no idea what it was but he introduced me to a couple of papers he recommended to me to read. And those adored paper were by Jacob and Monod, from Pasteur institute, and I hope biology student know these names. And so I read all those papers in the Journal called Journal of Molecular Biology, which was the cell of today at that time. And a long paper.  It opened on theory, and I was so impressed by this. And I immediately, instantaneously decided I’m going to be trained as a molecular biologist.


But in Japan there was no molecular biology lab at all. My professor was kind enough to arrange me to study abroad and I ended up one of the most beautiful town in the United States, which is the La Jolla, UCSD was just starting. They had only one more year above me in a graduate school at UCSD. The second year in the history of the UCSD. There were no undergraduate student at the time. So it started as a graduate school university. I was trained as a molecular geneticist, molecular biology, molecular genetics. At that time unlike now, major thrust in molecular biology was not in eukaryotic systems but in the prokaryotic system. Bacteria and viruses which infect the phages. Molecular Genetics  I worked on phage lambda, transcriptional control  with some genetic components into it at my PhD thesis. This is all OK, but not something I’m particularly proud of.


Then in the ’60, late ’60s 1968, I was going to go do postdoc. Now, among at that time, among the students, my fellow students there was some concern about the future when molecular biology because it looked like the major fundamental problem in molecular biology, molecular genetics all being solved. Genetic code, protein synthesis, messenger RNA, all of those things were discovered and we are wondering  is there a future for us when we become independent after several years of postdoc training. Among us, I mean, my close surrounding thought we should go to a more complex system. So the animal cells or plants, something like that,  to study at development. Differentiation, cell growth, control, and things like that. But at that time there was no really good technology to do that in order to do rigorous research, and it was down in prokaryotic system. It was a difficult decision to make as to where to go for the postdoc.


And I had of this institute called the Salk Institute, which is right across the street from North Torrey Pine road from UCSD and there was a lab which is run by someone called Renato Dulbecco. Now, amazing thing is among younger people here I don’t know how many percent of you know who Dulbecco is. Those who know please raise hands. You see it’s only older people. [LAUGHING] We don’t use Dulbecco medium anymore in tissue culture, we still use that. People know by the medium was named after him  but that’s not his major contribution to research science. And he is a virologist actually. But he comes from this old School of molecular genetics– molecular biology, which was started in Caltech and a few other places.  [INAUDIBLE] was a leader and Dulbecco was already there and a younger faculty member. He was the M.D. He was a virologist, but he was already exposed to what used to be called the molecular biology. He had a big lab and he’s main interest was tumor virology, to study load of viruses in tumorigenesis. Tumor Biology There you use the tissue culture from animal cells, and then you have a virus. They were at that time focusing on small genome virus, simian 40 virus, polyoma virus. They had no more than four or five genes in there, you can purify DNA, viral genome, and then you can infect in a culture in a condition where– lytic cycle where the cell host will die or you’ve done in a different type of cell that you can sort of transform them to make actual control for growth. So it sounded to me these are sort of a hybrid between the molecular genetics of prokaryotic system which we are used to, and at the same time you can learn something about the animal cell, the regulation in animal cells. I chose to apply that place and fortunately Renato took me and afterwards I found out several of the postdoc who joined the lab around the time I joined they had exactly the same consideration. They worried about their future and they wanted to have– they wanted [INAUDIBLE] work on the eukaryotic system but not purely animal system or plants or something like that. Postdocs That’s how I was exposed to the eukaryotic system, same eukaryotic system. And I also learned a lot in that lab although I was there only 20 months. And I tell you why I was there only 20 months in a minute. But lab was fantastic. They were very good postdocs, senior postdoc. The big lab, like 30 people. And Renato doesn’t, when you go there Renato doesn’t tell you what to do. He will say, oh, why don’t you just talk to people and try to find something interesting to you. And then he said he is happy to discuss it if I bring up some project ideas. But he will tell you what to do. And I learned a lot from these postdoctoral people, very good people, [INAUDIBLE]. And those people who later became very good senior scientist. Anyway, so I learned something there Trade Practical Training but it was relatively short as I said, less than 20 months.


And the reason why it was less than 20 months is because I came to UCSD with a visa called  J1 visa, exchange visitor visa. And nowadays there is some way to get around a little bit but at that time it was very strict. So actually 18 months after you finished PhD, which is called– this period it’s called trade practical training, you have to leave the country. You don’t have to go back to your native country but you have to go out of United States for at least two years, two years to come back. I had to leave the US. Leaving the US I was very happy with what was going on in Renato’s lab but I had to leave. Renato was concerned, very nice to me and he talked to some people in Canada, but Canada is close to US. And then if I stay at the shelter they are for a few years I may be able to come back. [LAUGHING] No, you may laugh this but a lot of people did that at that time.


But my postdoc work was not so spectacular. So I could not expect to have best [INAUDIBLE] petitions Offer Assistant Professor but I ended up having offer assistant professorship in a small town about two or three hours east of Montreal in a town called Shellbrook. It’s a small town with a large hospital. And there were some research division there. I got an offer, I wrote a grant, MRC grant, Canadian MRC grant, and I got it.


And I was supposed to go in about three months when I received a letter, short letter from Renato who was traveling– he’s Italian-American, so he often goes to Europe. He was traveling in Europe and I still have that letter, I could have brought the copy, but I didn’t do it. [LAUGHING] It’s written in a small stationery with the logo of a very famous hotel in Rome, it’s called the hotel Hassler. Hotel Hassler is just above Spanish steps, it’s still there. He wrote this handwritten letter and to me, only 1 and 1/2 pages, small ones. And he said something like I don’t know what you decided about the place you have to go after you leave my lab. But if you have not completely decided here’s I want to suggest an alternative, that’s what he said. And he said something like, he believes. This is 1968. No, 1969 he said, he believes time is ripe for young scientists with good molecular biology training to go into immunology, that’s what he said. And if you are interested, he said, right to doctor– director [INAUDIBLE] 487 [INAUDIBLE] C84058 [INAUDIBLE],, Switzerland. [LAUGHING] And when I saw that email– Jim Watson the letter I took it downstairs in the Salk Institute, where  [INAUDIBLE],, you know [INAUDIBLE] is supposed to be an immunologist,  but also come from molecular biology. I went there and I showed this letter  to a postdoc whose name was Jim Watson. But not the one you know but another one. [LAUGHING] And because I knew him and he come from molecular biology, so I had some affinity to him. So I asked him, is there anything I can do in immunology which could be significant. And as I said he had some molecular biology background. He said, immediately said, no, they had nothing. I went back and put it in my– the letter in my drawer and I forgot it.



And then about a month later, and it was almost two months before I was supposed to be deported unless I voluntarily leave. Renato came back and he came to tell me– he asked me whether I wrote the letter to [INAUDIBLE].. I explained to him that I did not, and I told him I don’t know anything about immunology, and I don’t even know Basel is, I didn’t know who [INAUDIBLE] is. I didn’t think that this is a good idea I told him. But now, I want to tell you something, it is really important. Renato as I told you doesn’t tell you what to do usually. Even do not recommend strongly to do anything but this case some way and it struck me because he said to me Susumu, this is really interesting direction you should really think about it or something like that. Montreal Then about 10 days later I visited Montreal which was the end of December.  [LAUGHING] And I was supposed to start in April but, I mean, and it was damn cold. [LAUGHING] I came back and I just–my mind flipped. I said, OK, I’m going to trust Renato  and I’m going to go to Basel.




Basel Actually in February I left and went to Basel. And my intention was again, just stay there for two years  and continue to work– I was making some polyoma virus mutant, temperature sensitive mutants, which will be defective in transformation, cellular transformation. I wanted to continue that research. Fortunately, [INAUDIBLE] allowed me to do that although when he saw me a week after I arrived he asked me whether this had anything to do with immunology. So I said no, I can’t think of any connection. And the second thing he asked me is do I know the difference between T cell and B cells, and I had never heard of that. So I said no. And but he did not fire me, he let me do.


Horizontal Structure And in Basel institute actually they had this what is called horizontal structure, which means if you have a PhD or a PhD equivalent you’re independent. It doesn’t matter whether you haven’t had any postdoc period or not. And you can corroborate that with anybody but you are given one technician and a half of a room, half of a lab, and a half of a office, and you can do whatever you want to. And you are supposed to do something relevant for immunology but I was ignoring that. [LAUGHING] Cellular Cellular Immunology


But in about two years I suffered actually, because I didn’t understand what they are talking about. There were a lot of seminars. Apparently there were very good immunologists who assemble there but there was no molecular biologist  or biochemist or anything like that. It’s pure immunology. At that time dominant area, dominant approach of immunology well it’s called cellular immunology. There are seminars and I mean, I try Research to go but I didn’t really understand. But then gradually my thinking sort of changed. I thought if I’m going to stay here surrounded by apparently very good immunologist I should learn something in immunology and I should try to do some research which interest them. Otherwise I don’t have opportunity to talk with them science.


I fished around and I ran into this problem of genetic origin Antibody Diversity of antibody diversity. When I was exposed to this problem. I actually honestly speaking I didn’t understand why they don’t study antibody genes rather than antibody molecules themselves because the only thing that people are doing at that time, as Lisa said but a lot of other people like [INAUDIBLE] and other people are [INAUDIBLE].. They were sequencing myeloma proteins which is monoclonal immunoglobin proteins. And they are hoping that if you sequence enough of them from that pattern you may be able to answer the genetic origin of antibody diversity and I thought that this is crazy. I mean, how can you do that when you have to look at the gene and compare the genes with the proteins, not just on one side it’s not going to solve the problem. Unfortunately, when I was in Basel– I mean Renato’s lab I already knew about restriction enzyme and also almost gene cloning, it almost becoming coming. That was the great thing about Renat’s lab. Renato’s in tumor biology was the Meca in tumor biology field. So a lot of people actually sent pre-prints to Renato’s lab to I guess to get some opinions or something like that. I already knew they are this in I think 1968, first paper with Smith and what is the other guy? Restriction enzyme applied to– AUDIENCE: Dan Nathan. SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Yeah, Nathan. Smith and Nathan. So I thought– when I heard that I immediately thought Radar the idea that I executed later.


That if you cut up genomic genes antibody producing gene versus no antibody producing genes, if there is any DNA rearrangement, if we cut them up, and if we have a probe by the way, hybridization probe, run the gel and the probe patent. Basically Southern blot, but Southern blot didn’t exist at that time. So that was a technical issue of how to do Southern blot equivalent because it didn’t exist. But theoretically, if you can do something like that one should be able to tell whether gene is rearranging or not automatically. Restriction I started by getting my myeloma cell line to grow them [INAUDIBLE] but at the same time I was always thinking about how to spread out restricted the genomic DNA. And we did something really not elegant because Southern blot it’s very elegant. But we run– people who works on the serum on the separate Electrophoresis proteins in the serum they use electrophoresis, horizontal electro– other electrophoresis. And we owned the preparative thing, they used very large one like 50 centimeter long and maybe 40 centimeter wide, or something like that. You have to run long time because it is a very large gel. And I saw that in the cold room the immunologist were using, so I thought, oh, maybe I can use this one put the DNA, restricted DNA and develop it electrophoretically. And there were a lot of trial and error but it turned out you have to do it very slowly because otherwise if you rush [INAUDIBLE] get constricted and distorted. It takes about 3 and 1/2 days to run. But and then you cut it up, and then extract DNA from each fraction, like 60 fractions. It’s not the Southern blot. And then they do the hybridization with probe, immunoglobulin gene probe, which itself there were no cDNA then. What we did is we purified as much as possible from myeloma cell line, the specific immunoglobulin lichen mRNA. I don’t think it went any more than 97%, 98% pure even if we did the many steps of purification. But then you iodinate. To label you iodinate and then use that as the probe. Iodine That’s how it went. I don’t tell you all of the detail.

But we have only 20 minutes left so maybe I should stop here. And only message I will give to young people is I’m so– of course, I’m so grateful to Dulbecco. And I think that he is a most sophisticated mentor without any intentional planning. He had this, in my view, he had this vision, where the science is going, where the exciting things are going to develop in five years 10 years, maybe 30 years. Immune RNA And he was not immunologist but someway he knew enough to suggest to I guess ambitious young student postdoc, to try. And I think as a matter of fact I’ll tell you a little bit more because he actually in the letter– I abbreviated– but he suggested something very specific it’s called immune RNA.


Now, there was a claim was made around that, just before that one group in Harvard and one group in NYU or something. Independent. If you take a rabbit immunize with antigen Two papers and then afterwards extract RNA from spring, and they inject that RNA to a naive rabbit, that rabbit to become immune to that antigen and that RNA is called immune RNA. But it’s very crude. I mean you just take RNA and inject it. And there was a paper, there were two papers. And Renato happened to see those papers and he was– one thing he was thinking about is that. He was thinking, well, maybe one should study this more carefully and tried to characterize RNA and find out what’s going on. And that probably he mentioned that in this small letter I was wrong as an example of what I might consider doing. It turned out those two papers are fraud, so it was wrong. And some of you may know who the professor at Harvard. But in any case, it is already quite well-known, young professor and most of them are wrong– fraud. They’re made up.


He was completely wrong when he suggested something very specific to me but he was right in suggesting big picture, general direction. And I think this is a very important thing mentors should keep in mind. Mentor should not be just a coach, mentor should be a some [INAUDIBLE] giving person. This is the way I feel and– There are a lot of other things but I’ll stop stopped hereand then I’ll let you ask questions.

質疑応答 質問1:アメリカ留学後に京大に戻らなくても大丈夫だったの?

AUDIENCE: So when your professor from Kyoto sent you to US, didn’t he expect you to go back? SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Yeah. So when my visa is going to expire I did write to him of course. But I could not– he could not come up with attractive position for me. So oh, you mean, do I have a moral obligation to go back? [LAUGHING] No. I never feel that way. [LAUGHING] No, he was not unhappy that I didn’t come back. He was not unhappy. It was OK. People, one of the message I have is young people should go abroad. I mean, see the world and interact with the different people, and learn from them. I study memory, brain. Brain is so easily shaped by environment. You only think about with information you have in the head. You have to expand it by going to a new place interacting, with new people and exploring new things. But anyway so. Nobel laureates

質疑応答 質問2:ダルベッコ研究室の人々について

43:04 AUDIENCE: Renato’s lab produced many other people. Where people– SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Renato’s lab, yes. AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Yeah, yeah, it’s amazing. [INAUDIBLE] AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] is out there, right? SUSUMU TONEGAWA: [INAUDIBLE] is amazing, OK. 43:17 Now, you help me to tell you a little story again. You know Renato’s lab, Renato himself is a Nobel laureate 43:25 and you know. And his mentor is a Nobel laureate who is Salvador Luria. 43:31 And Salvador Luria graduate student who overlapped with Renato’s postdoc period [INAUDIBLE].. 43:39 And then in Renato’s lab. So David Baltimore, Howard Temin, Lee Hartwell, 43:45 and myself. I mean at a different time. Lee Hartwell was when he was a Cal Tech professor graduate 43:52 student. He had four Nobel laureate from his lab. AUDIENCE: And I think I remember Paul Berg. 43:59 SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Yes, Paul Berg when he changed from protein synthesis, molecular genetics 44:07 to eukaryotic system, which led to this recombinant DNA 44:12 technology he spend the one year in Renato’s lab for a sabbatical. 44:18 So he was exposed to eukaryotic system in Renato’s lab. This is quite amazing. How did he do it 44:24 I mean, we asked him how you do it? How he does it? And of course, he doesn’t answer. 44:31 He doesn’t have any answer. That it just happened, he says. 44:38 The only thing is he does his own research, his own experiments. We had no idea what he was doing. And it was every six months or so, he send out notice– not the email. No email then— that he’s going to give a talk in the lab. So he gives a talk, and we don’t understand what he’s talking about when he is so far ahead. You know, 1960– just in the late ’60s, he was already thinking, talking about growth factor in a cell, which would regulate the growth of cells. And he was working under the assumption there was a receptor for the specific growth factor on the cell surface and then did a signal transduction for changing a transcriptional or replicational state. And he was thinking about that. But this is very ahead for everybody else. So we thought, oh, this is– I don’t know. This doesn’t look like hard science. 45:53 But later, we realized that he was just very ahead of everybody else, I think.

質疑応答 質問3:ノーベル賞の連絡があったときの状況

Telephone call AUDIENCE: Can you describe the telephone call you got from Sweden? I mean, where you were?

SUSUMU TONEGAWA: I was in bed. It’s early morning. So Boston time is a very early morning. So I was sleeping. But also, call was not from Stockholm. Call was from Tokyo because a reporter called earlier than Stockholm.

Anyway, yes, please?

質疑応答 質問4:脳科学で発展性のある分野は?

AUDIENCE: So if you had to make a suggestion Future of brain research to your student or the postdoc, what would be some exciting area– 46:47 SUSUMU TONEGAWA: For the future? AUDIENCE: Five, 10 years or [INAUDIBLE].. 46:53

SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Brain, brain. Well, you should know that everybody– there’s no such a thing as objective visionary. 47:05 So each one has their– is based on their– actually, based on the memory they have in their head 47:13 and what is called a taste. And well, I consider brain is a tremendous future. 47:24 And brain research can be done in many different ways. It’s totally interdisciplinary research. 47:30 You can do biologically. You can do physiologically. You can do behaviors. And a lot of new technology is needed, also. 47:38 More technology has to be invented, particularly if eventually, if we want to study human brain, rather than animals. 47:45 We need a real revolution in a non-invasive technology 47:50 to look at what’s going on in the human brain. So this is yet to come. 47:56 MRI– it’s good now, but it’s not good enough 48:03 for real understanding of human mind. So engineering is definitely there. 48:09 And I think that that’s all I can say. Interdisciplinarity I mean, a lot of people say the same thing. But the more I get involved in brain research, 48:24 the more I’m convinced. And important thing is you are very aware of that interdisciplinarity of brain research. So one should try to learn– train– trained in not in one level of analysis, 48:50 but at least two, maybe three levels, multiple levels, so that you can make a connection between processes, events happening in the different level of complexity– cellular, cellular interactions and physiology behavior, 49:05 and so on. But I also say that since this is a biology department, molecular biology will be powerful– continue to be powerful. There’s no doubt about it. You know this, right? Molecular biology is applicable for any area of life science. So it’s good to be trained as a good molecular biologist, by the way, when you are young. But then, you want to think about exploring new problems.

質疑応答 質問5:なぜ科学研究者に?

AUDIENCE: Can you say something about early influences in your life going into the scientific direction? I mean, did you have family members? Did you have a chemistry set? Did you tinker around in the basement?

SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Well, just again, I’m confirming what I already said. Human brain is easily shaped by environment. So the doctors’ children often become a doctor. Lawyers’ children often become a lawyer. Scientists’ or engineers’ children often become scientists or engineers, and so on. So I am not an exception to that. So in my bigger family, and the uncles, grandfather, they are mostly in science or engineering, including my father and my brother. My elder brother became a physicist, and so on. So that’s only world I knew when I was younger– you know, 50:39 teenagers. And it was very natural for me to go into some kind of science. 50:46 Then why chemistry? That’s a difficult question. I guess in high school, my grade in chemistry was good. So that’s why I thought I may have some talent in there. 51:00 But that’s not– yeah, they was just [INAUDIBLE].. How to become a scientist 51:06

質疑応答 質問6:免疫学から神経科学への転向について

AUDIENCE: Can you say a few words about your transition to neurobiology and how you prepared for it? SUSUMU TONEGAWA: How? 51:12 Transfer? Transition? AUDIENCE: Transition from– SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Yeah, transition– so that’s another thing. 51:17 That question is often asked. 51:24 You are young, but not so young. And I’m talking to younger people. You’ll excuse me for that. 51:35 You know, I think as a scientist, if we want to become a scientist, 51:41 I think the most important thing is your, as you say, 51:46 curiosity or your interest, scientific interest. 51:52 So as you do some research in some areas, of course, 52:00 there are other interesting things there. And you can never really finish it. 52:06 The question is, is it really interesting for you? 52:13 I mean, I think people should always think about, every few weeks, am I really doing– what I’m doing here, research, is it really worthwhile doing it compared to something else? And in other words, you should always assess what is called “importance,” which is also very subjective judgment. But that’s OK. Everything is subjective in this world. So you should assess whether you’re really looking at, seeking, something really– what is called “important” for you, important. So in immunology, I worked in so-called immunology. By the way, I never felt I’d been an immunologist, OK? I always felt that I’m a molecular biologist. I just use the molecular biology to study immunological problems. So I did that for, what, 15 years or so? 53:14 Maybe a bit more. And of course, there are still a lot of problems. But I started feeling I really explore something new. 53:24 I said explore something new. And there’s more subtle thinking on this.




In science, as you know, if we want to have a really impact to that field that you are working on, I think you need a few things. One is keen interest. And the second thing is some kind of approaches, expertise, or techniques, or something, which you like, and that you think that you are pretty good at, but other people are not using to study certain problems in the field. So it’s almost like what is called interdisciplinary approach. Otherwise, I think it’s impossible to be able to contribute significantly to a field as a latecomer. You understand that? Because there are thousands of, maybe tens of thousands of bright people who have been thinking about the problems for many, many years. And then all of a sudden, you go in there. 5And if you use the same approach as they are using, or their same thought, applying the same thoughts, I think the chances are very small that you can contribute. So you have to run into something that nobody has done. 55:05 So when I went to Immunology Institute, nobody was doing the molecular biology of nucleic acids. Nobody in the world interested in the immunological problem was doing that. And I happened to be trained in that field in other areas. And all I did is combine the problem with the approach I had. Now, fortunately, nobody else was doing. And I did have competition later, by the way. César Milstein, [INAUDIBLE],, they also came into that.


But in any case, so the same thing in immunology, so I felt immunology is coming to the point where the people who have more medical training, medical, as well as PhD training, will probably have a better– more fun– to continue to study some of the remaining problem in the immunology, like tolerance and so on, or the immunity, or things like that. And I don’t have any medical training, and I didn’t want to let– how do I say? I didn’t feel that I’m the one who should be studying all those things.


So I wanted to have something new. So there is a push and a pull. The push is what I just said. Pull is I was interested in the brain. I was interested in mind. 56:44 But I didn’t know for several years, I didn’t know how to study. In other words, I didn’t have this approach, which is unique, 56:51 or “almost unique,” to me or to my lab. But fortunately, toward the end of immunological research, we are using this transgenic gene knockout system to study immune system as a system. And then one day, [INAUDIBLE],, who is now professor at UCLA, came as a postdoc. When I was talking with him, we realized nobody has applied the transgenic or knockout mouse technology to study the mechanism underlying mouse behavior. Now, there are Drosophila people are already doing that– 57:38 been the study of that several years before that. But it was now possible also to do with mouse, but nobody was doing that. Never had anybody is starting doing that. So I thought this may be– 57:56 and that was a break with which I went in. We went in. It took about seven years to phase out immunology and go up 58:05 neuroscience. But it was a great change because my students are now postdocs. 58:11 Many of them also switched, and we learned together. 58:16 And then some of them know better than me. You know, like an MD postdoc, they know the anatomy of the brain already. 58:23 They tell me all these foreign names to me. And I learn from them. 58:31 And they’re not just anatomy, but many things. So it was OK. Really, I had– the luck I had is had Howard Hughes. 58:41 So we had stable funding. But actually, Max Cohen– I was on Howard Hughes’s own immunology program. 58:49 So when Max Cohen heard that I’m switching, he– 58:55 I don’t know what he did. He wrote to me or he called me, and he expressed his displeasure for my changing it. 59:04 He goes, hey, Susumu, you are in the immunology program. AUDIENCE: I can tell you what he said. 59:10 SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Huh? AUDIENCE: I can tell you what he said because– SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Well, what did he say? AUDIENCE: Yeah, because I was director of the Cancer Center Electrophysiology 59:15 at the time when you were making the switch. And you wanted a room to do electrophysiology. 59:21 And if you remember, I gave you one. And Max called me up and said, we’re not paying for that room. 59:30 We tried [INAUDIBLE]. And we got one to [INAUDIBLE]. SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Right, right. AUDIENCE: And I said, well, I don’t care what we pay for it. 59:38 He’s got the room, and he’s going to do neurobiology. SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Good. AUDIENCE: And he came around later. SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Later. 59:43 Yeah, came around. He came around. As soon the first paper was coming out, we agreed– change. 59:51 And he said, oh, it’s great. 59:58 So in that sense, Howard Hughes people are very good, very nice to us.

質疑応答 質問7:科学研究の最高峰に上り詰めてもなお自分を研究に駆り立てるものは何か?


Yes, please? 1:00:04 AUDIENCE: What keeps you motivated? I mean– SUSUMU TONEGAWA: I can’t hear you. AUDIENCE: What keeps you motivated to continue 1:00:09 the work that you’re doing? Is it just the interest in what you’re doing? I mean, just what keeps you motivated to keep 1:00:16 going, to keep pushing forward in science? Because some people might have said that you have attained the peak of scientific achievement. So what keeps you going beyond that point?


SUSUMU TONEGAWA: I never thought that I was at the peak. What do you mean? You still have to live. 1:00:39 So you want to do something interesting, right? You want to have fun in your life, as long as you are living. So you have to find something which you get excited about. Right?


So it’s great if you change your field late, late, like I did, because you go back. You become student. You become a student. So you learn a lot of things very fast. It’s a lot like studying in a class and reading a book, textbooks, or things like that.  [INAUDIBLE] that’s too slow if we are changing a field. Because tomorrow, I have to talk to a very well-known neuroscientist for collaboration. So by tomorrow, I have to know the basics of what we are going to talk about. So I just ask around, the people, and by ears we learn things. I mean, it’s probably information is not very accurate this way. But at least you get the sound. That’s the way I think the sciences should be done. I mean, the science– it’s up to you.


I mean, if you’re interested, you do it. We have no other choice. Otherwise, you are bored to death– die. I hope it’s useful. I’m not sure. It’s OK? I want to emphasize molecular biology is important, although future is in brain neuroscience.

質疑応答 質問8(1:02:25)ヒトの脳をロボットで実現する日はいつ?

I have one question. How long do you think it’s going to take to actually model 1:02:32 the human brain with robots? SUSUMU TONEGAWA: Oh. 1:02:38 How long it’s going to take? I’m sure you can ask that question to somebody else. 1:02:45 You will get a better answer. But it’s tough. 1:02:51 You’re talking about a robot who behave, think, like human beings. That– I don’t think it will happen very soon, OK? 1:03:05 AUDIENCE: It could. SUSUMU TONEGAWA: I mean, actually– actually, it’s quite dangerous to do that because if a robot doesn’t like you, they could have much more power than you have, and a different order of magnitude of power. So they may attack you. So we have to– I don’t think– in that way, I don’t  think a robot will be ever be like a human being because human being will not allow that, right? But the question is, can robot– without given software– can this machine proactively not only respond to the stimulation, but have a thought? Planning of the behavior? I don’t think people have agreed to do that. So I think it will advance. Technology like that will advance [INAUDIBLE].. But to what extent we can do that, I don’t know. And when? It depends on what robot you’re talking about, what stage of robot. I mean, robot can now take care of patients, for instance– give the pills in the right time and say something soothing to you, to the patients. But that’s all software is there.  I mean, the human is giving them to do that. So they have to create their own– I mean, if you look at the human brain, the human brain’s hardware changes in response to environment. Hardware– it’s a network itself– changes to adapt to the environment. We incorporate information from environment. It’s a totally interactive machine with environment. So please ask someone in the– artificial intelligence people at MIT. You know, it’s very interesting because people who are really hardcore thinking-machine people, plus it’s people who are think about robotics, but also at the same time, a neuroscientist, they are viewed completely different.


So I remember someone– yes, I tell you one little thing. I’m going to finish it, OK? Terry Sejnowski is a very good, respected neuroscientist at the Salk Institute who has a very broad understanding– biology to robotics to computational– everything. I really respect him. So he was telling me the other day that some years ago, when the thinking machine at MIT– people who are at the height of productivity– he was invited to give a seminar. And on the way to the lecture room, the host professor warned him not to criticize their robotics or their computers, supercomputers. So he thought about it. And then he said he started– just about he was try to start the lecture, fly, little fly, flew here. And immediately, he thought, you know, you just saw this fly flying here. You know, this little guy can find out where the food is. He knows how to reach there. He knows how to even store it. He can even reproduce himself. Now, I just saw this huge supercomputer in the basement yesterday in here. They can’t even move. They certainly cannot reproduce by themselves. So this was, as I said, many years, 10 years ago. So that’s the difference of a little, simple, relatively simple brain and a huge supercomputer. OK? [APPLAUSE] Thank you.

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事故を目撃した、学生の保護者「亡くなられた生徒さんの洋服に(火が燃え)移って、みんなで飲み物とかをかけて消そうとしてたらしいんですけども、それでも(火が)消えなくて、近くに水とかもなくて、布とかでバサバサと消そうとしたらしいんですね。そうしたら逆にそれで火が燃え上がって、」(「はっきり言って見殺し」BBQで引火の生徒(18)が死亡  理事長に直接取材“アルコール使用を教師に指示”は明言せず 2023年6/9(金) 19:52 FNNプライムオンライン YAHOO!JAPAN)

現場にいた学生 「地面にぐるぐる、頑張って服を脱ごうとしていて、みんなぼう然。(搬送された学生が)早く回復して、学校に戻ってほしいという一心でした。」(バーベキュー炎上死亡事故 現場にいた学生が当時の状況語る 2023年6/9(金) 18:04 FBS福岡放送)


  1. 「青い炎に包まれた生徒が搬送された後もイベントは続いた」“福岡バーベキュー炎上18歳死亡”問われる学園の“やり過ぎ体質”「理事長のカレーとおでんがいつも出てきて…」 2023年6月11日(日) 11:12 文春オンライン 5月24日午後0時55分ごろ、福岡県柳川市にあるハリウッドワールド美容専門学校の敷地内で開かれたバーベキューで、男子学生4人がやけどするという事故が起きた。うち1人が6月6日に搬送先の病院で死亡。‥ 事故のきっかけは、男性教員がアルコールをコンロに投入したことだった。爆発的に燃え上がった火は瞬く間に学生4人の衣服などに燃え移ったとされている。亡くなった1年生の男性(18)の死因は敗血症性ショック。‥ 60代男性の理事長は12台のコンロの着火担当で、新聞紙などにアルコールを染み込ませ、副理事長と一緒にライターで点火。その後、生徒らを呼びバーベキューを開始しました。事故が起きたのはそれから10分後。火の弱かった1台のコンロに20代の男性教員が手指消毒用のアルコールを直接注いだところ『ボンッ』と音を立てて燃え上がり事故に繋がったといいます。‥ ニュースで学校のコメントが流れた時には耳を疑いました。『アルコールの使用は初めて』とか『教員の不手際』だとか。アルコールは前回のバーベキューでも新聞紙に染み込ませて使っていたのに……。理事長が先生たちに『アルコールを追加してこい』と指示してたのはみんな知ってるはずです



ZEN大学(オンライン大学)構想の発表 宇宙際タイヒミュラー理論(IUT理論)が研究の目玉の一つに

新しいオンライン大学「ZEN大学」設立に関する発表会 N高等学校・S高等学校 チャンネル登録者数 5.3万人

ZEN大学は、教育、研究、実学を柱にしているそうで、研究に関しては宇宙際タイヒミュラー理論(IUT理論)の研究者 加藤 文元(かとう ふみはる)博士を教授に招いて、日本において宇宙際タイヒミュラー理論(IUT理論)研究のすそ野を広げることを意図しているようです。

  1. 宇宙際タイヒミュラー理論(IUT理論) の紹介部分 https://www.youtube.com/live/kuC1GxJ7KMs?feature=share&t=2275












協和発酵バイオ βラクトリン



茸タモギ茸由来エルゴチオネイン配合 記憶の番人


機能性表示食品バコパサポニン配合 記憶の小箱







イチョウ葉 脳内α




小林製薬の機能性表示食品 健脳ヘルプ












大学専任教員:『「授業1コマにつき◆円」であれば月給は「4×◆円/月」となる これまでも同大学では非常勤講師に対してこの基準で給料が支払われてきた』





大学専任教員:「ごめんなさい,私の “解釈” が間違っていました」

大学非常勤講師の給料をめぐるある顛末  leeswijzer leeswijzer 2021年3月1日 09:34 note.com)
















  1. 残念ながら大学の非常勤講師の報酬額が安いのは「侮辱」ではない(2019-11-17 はてな匿名ダイアリー)


  1. 52歳大学非常勤講師「年収200万円」の不条理 正規の「専任教員」との給与格差は5倍だ  藤田 和恵 2018/01/12 東洋経済ONLINE 複数の大学で週5コマの授業を担当。雑誌への執筆や専門学校での集中講座などの雑収入を合わせると、ようやく年収200万円ほどになる。大学院時代に日本学生支援機構から借りた奨学金の返済がまだ300万円ほど残っている。独身で、実家暮らし。年金受給者の母親と同居しているため、なんとか生活できているという。
  2. 早稲田大・非常勤講師の給与明細が語る“大学内搾取”の構造 佐々木奎一 2011/01/16 14:08 mynewsjapan.com 専任の教授と同じように講義しても、年収250万円ほどで研究費・出張費も自腹社会保障もない劣悪な待遇で暮らす人たち。それが大学の非常勤講師だ。


  1. 下流化ニッポンの処方箋フォロー年収200万円博士号女性の夢は「任期なし常勤」 藤田孝典 2016年7月27日 毎日新聞 経済プレミア

  1. 終わらない氷河期 疲弊する現場で/1 博士量産、ポストなく 6大学掛け持ち、50歳非常勤講師  毎日新聞 2020/2/19 有料記事



一月、次年度の授業計画を確かめた際、自分の名前がないことに気付いた<研究者目指したけれど…大学非常勤講師らの嘆き> (番外編)新ルール導入、道開く 2019年8月26日 02時00分 東京新聞TokyoWeb)
「さっき新しいフランス語の先生が大学の中を案内されているのを見かけたんだけど。大丈夫なの?」 まさか自分はクビなのか――? すぐに担当の専任教員の部屋に駆け込み、学科長も交えた席で説明を求めた。動揺するヒロキさんに対し、彼らはこう説明したという。 「2013年以降に採用した非常勤講師は2018年3月をもって一律雇い止めとなります」(40歳非常勤講師、「夫婦とも雇い 2018/05/15 東洋経済ONLINE)



  1. 非常勤講師の雇い止め無効 大学側に未払い賃金支払い命じる 2023/5/19 19:29 産経新聞 関西福祉科学大(大阪府柏原市)で英語の非常勤講師を務めていた京都市の川口剛さん(57)が、勤務状況に問題がないのに雇い止めされたのは不当として、運営する学校法人に地位確認などを求めた訴訟の判決で、京都地裁は19日、「社会通念上相当だと認められない」として雇い止めは無効と判断し、未払い賃金の支払いを命じた。
  2. 大阪大学非常勤講師解雇(雇止め)事件提訴 民主法律協会 202304 大阪大学は、2023年3月末で、勤続10年となる非常勤講師約100名全員について、次年度の契約を更新しない(雇止めにする)とし、次年度も契約したければ、あらためて公募に応募せよと通告した。本件は、このうち4名が原告となり、大阪大学に対して、地位確認と賃金を請求する訴訟である。
  3. 最高裁が専修大の上告を棄却。非常勤講師の5年無期転換拒否が違法であると確定。 2023年03月28日 首都圏大学非常勤講師組合 首都圏大学非常勤講師組合(横浜)の組合員が、「研究職でない非常勤講師にイノベ法を用いて5年無期転換を阻止することは違法である」として勤務する専修大学を訴えた裁判で、一審二審で完全勝利が続きました。そして3月24日、ついに最高裁も専修大の上告に対し「上告棄却」「上告審不受理」の決定を出しました。これにより、研究職でない非常勤講師にイノベ法を用いることは不可能であると確定しました。
  4. 阪大非常勤講師4人“雇い止め不当”無期雇用への転換求め提訴 2023年02月09日 17時53分 NHK 大阪大学で5年を超えて働く非常勤講師ら4人が、大学が新たに定めた契約期間の上限によって、来月(3月)末で雇い止めにされるのは不当だと主張し、期間の定めのない無期雇用への切り替えを求める訴えを起こしました。‥ 大阪大学では、およそ1100人の非常勤講師が働いていて、去年8月にも2人が同様の訴えを起こしています。

  1. 大学非常勤講師の「10年超え」無期転換ルールを制限した裁判例【専修大学(無期転換)事件(東京地判令和3年12月16日(第1審)労働判例1259号41頁】  溝延 祐樹@働く人たち応援弁護士 溝延 祐樹@働く人たち応援弁護士 2022年12月11日 17:43 労働契約法18条は、通算5年を超えて労働契約が更新されることになる有期契約労働者に対して、無期労働契約の申込みをする権利を認めています。ところが、大学教員や研究者については、科学イノベ法や大学教員法という特別法によりこの「5年」が「10年」と読み替えられています(科学イノベ法15条の2柱書、教員任期法7条)。‥ この「10年超え」の規定に関し、今般、語学の非常勤講師についてその適用を否認する裁判例が出ました。‥ この裁判例が最高裁で支持された場合、一部の非常勤講師については「10年超え」どころか「5年超え」による無期転換権を行使できるということになるかもしれず、大きな影響力をもつことになりそうです。

  1. 「慶大に雇止めされた」通算8年勤務、非常勤講師が無期転換求め提訴 横浜地裁 2022年06月08日 弁護士ドットコムニュース 原告は、契約の通算期間が5年を超えたことから、労働契約法18条に基づき、2019年度に無期労働契約への転換申込権を行使した(いわゆる「無期転換ルール」)。しかし、大学側は、原告が転換の申し込みをおこなうには、任期法(大学の教員等の任期に関する法律)7条1項の適用に基づき、契約の通算期間として「5年」ではなく「10年」が必要だとして、無期労働契約への転換を認めなかったという。
  2. 年収250万…早稲田大の非常勤講師らが、大学を刑事告発 突然の雇い止めの実態 林克明 2014.06.07 13:00 社会 Business Journal
  3. ブラック大学・阪大が「非常勤講師5年で雇止め」の就業規則制定を強行 年収150万円講師が刑事告訴へ 林克明 2013/05/26 14:45 mynewsjapan.com 阪大の非常勤講師の報酬は、一律1時間あたり6685円。



  1. 非常勤講師として卒業式で学生を送り出したことはないです。たぶんどの大学も卒業式に非常勤講師は呼ばれません。午後10:46 · 2023年3月20日 コニーリョ@koniglio













  1. 東北大学の女性限定教授公募の波紋「教授って合コンサークルか何かなのか?」





対面授業 vs. オンライン授業

  1. コロナ禍での授業について、非常勤講師の立場から 2021-03-11 固窮庵雑録

  1. 「機器代も通信費も自腹」 オンライン講義で大学の非常勤講師が悲鳴  毎日新聞 2020/4/28  有料記事 本格的にオンライン講義が始まるが、大学からの資金補助はない。年間の収入は手取りで150万円ほど。「元々、給料が少ないのに二重苦だ」 自宅で事前に撮影した動画をユーチューブで学生限定で公開する予定



大学 vs.公立小学校

大学 vs.看護専門学校

大学 vs.キャバクラ


科学英語論文における接続詞 and (そして)の用法 英語と日本語に共通する曖昧さについて


では、複数の意味を持ちうる語句にはどのようなものがあるでしょうか。そのような語句の一つにandがあります。gene A and gene Bのように単語2つを結びつけるandには曖昧さはありませんが、節A and 節B. のように、2つの文構造を結ぶandの場合に、いったいこのandは何を意味するのかという多義性の問題が出てきます。まずA、次にBという時間的な順序を表すandなのか、理由A、だから結果Bという因果関係を表すandなのか、AすなわちBという言い換えのためのandなのか、いろいろな意味がありえることでしょう。接続詞andが持つこのような曖昧さは、科学英語と相容れません。だから、科学英語においては、何も予備知識を持たない読者であっても意味が一意に定まらない限りandは使わないほうがよいと言えます。



論文:Copin et al., 2021.The monoclonal antibody combination REGEN-COV protects against SARS-CoV-2 mutational escape in preclinical and human studies.  June 05, 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.002

andの使用例文①:Similar to the REGEN-COV combination, the COV2-2130 and COV2-2196 cocktail was also resistant to rapid escape and full escape was associated with acquiring multiple mutations within the same virus.

andの使用例文②:All VIR-7831 escape residues mapped to the published epitope of the antibody and the resultant escape virus maintained its ability to replicate, indicating that these mutations were not deleterious to the virus (data not shown).

andの使用例文③:We have previously described a triple antibody combination against Zaire ebolavirus (Pascal et al., 2018) and we similarly decided to assess potential advantages of combining three non-competing neutralizing mAbs targeting the RBD of SARS-CoV2:REGN10933+REGN10987+REGN10985.

andの使用例文④:Of note, in all patients, the three variants were identified at baseline or earliest time points (<5 days after REGEN-COV treatment) and no significant increase in their frequencies between early and late time points were observed indicating absence of treatment related selection.

andの使用例文⑤:However, the question regarding the relevance of these in vitro escape studies remains, and it is important to examine viral dynamics under therapeutic antibody pressure in more relevant settings, including in in vivo efficacy models and in treated patients.

andの使用例文⑥:Our approach allowed us to observe minor variants and our data indicate the vast majority of infected individuals are already harboring spike protein variants at baseline, prior to use of any antiviral agent and before natural immunity is established, as half of the study participants had not yet mounted an antiviral immune response at baseline (Weinreich et al., 2020). 

andの使用例文⑦:This clearly demonstrates that the SARS-CoV-2 circulating population is highly heterogeneous in infected patients and the large reservoir of existing (or future) minor variants could be readily selected under the right selective pressure conditions.



Giampazolias et al., 2021. Secreted gelsolin inhibits DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation and cancer immunity. June 02, 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.021

andの使用例文①:However, the mechanisms by which cDC1s acquire tumor antigens for cross-presentation remain unclear, and it is not known whether interference with this process can constitute a means of cancer immune evasion.

andの使用例文②:The total amount of fluorescent rhodamine-actin on beads was unchanged by sGSN incubation (Figure 1D), and binding of anti-actin antibody was unaffected or even slightly increased, perhaps due to increased exposure of epitopes (Figure 1D).

andの使用例文③:Many cells can synthesize sGSN in addition to cytoplasmic gelsolin (cGSN), and sGSN can account for more than half of total gelsolin transcript expression in some tissues (Figures S3F–S3H).

andの使用例文④:In contrast, the intersection of CLEC9A expression with expression of cytoplasmic cGSN did not correlate with survival (Figure S6I), and a cDC1 gene signature did not substitute for CLEC9A (Figures S6J and S6K).



andの使用例文①:In addition, HSF1 binding motifs are enriched in the promoters of anhydrobiosis-related genes and we demonstrate binding of HSF1 to these promoters by ChIP-qPCR. 

Pv11 is the only animal cell line capable of entering anhydrobiosis [14,15], and the cells can be preserved in the dry state at room temperature for up to 372 days [9].

To successfully induce anhydrobiosis in Pv11 cells, treatment with a high concentration of trehalose is necessary prior to a desiccation step [15], and during this treatment, several genes are strongly upregulated, such as the genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins [16,19], thioredoxins (TRXs) [16,20], protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferases (PIMTs) [16,21] and Lea-island-located (LIL) proteins [22].




説明 Two independent clauses are often connected with a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, so, or, yet, nor, for.

例文 There are no true coral reefs in Gabon, and most of the largely unmapped reefs are rocky.

参照 https://learn.canvas.net/courses/1505/pages/lesson-connecting-sentences


岡山大学と国立循環器病研究センターが令和5年3月 2 4 日に発表した「研究活動の不正行為及び倫理指針不適合に関する調査結果報告について」によれば、

Genetic manipulation of autonomic nerve fiber innervation and activity and its effect on breast cancer progression https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0430-3

Kamiya A, Hayama Y, Kato S, Shimomura A, Shimomura T, Irie K, Kaneko R, Yanagawa Y, Kobayashi K, Ochiya T Nature Neuroscience 22(8): 1289-1305, 2019 doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0430-3.の論文で特定不正行為が認定されたそうです。計113 か所に捏造箇所があったとのこと。

① 特定不正行為に関与したと認定した研究者 岡山大学学術研究院医歯薬学域教授 元国立研究開発法人国立循環器病研究センター研究所循環動態制御部室長 神谷 厚範

行為の悪質性について 両機関の調査委員会において,相当広い範囲にわたって,架空の実験結果で構成され,大量の特定不正行為が認定されていること等から,悪質性が高い(大きい)と判断した。










  1. 岡山大学・神谷厚範教授 がんの論文で捏造113か所 実験に使われたマウスは13分の1以下 3/24(金) 17:08 コメント559件 RSK山陽放送 YAHOO!JAPAN




  1. 桐島、部活やめるってよ