Category Archives: 科学英語の書き方



分かっていること Known


It is now well established that developmental decisions can be overridden by artificial induction of combinations of “core” TFs that yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells or direct lineage conversion (Hanna et al., 2010, Morris and Daley, 2013, Orkin and Hochedlinger, 2011, Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006, Vierbuchen and Wernig, 2011).


Increasing evidence suggests that certain malignant tumors also depend on a cellular hierarchy, with privileged subpopulations driving tumor propagation and growth.

分かっていないこと Unknown


However, despite extensive studies, many components of TLR and other biological networks are unknown, and many genes associated with disease have not been assigned to a function or a pathway.  引用元:

It has been difficult to reconcile some of these opposing data, and it is unclear whether these two effector T cell populations are related to one another or are independent subsets with distinct origins. 引用元:

While most of the studies have focused on the biology of virus-specific CD8 TRM cells, basic questions regarding CD4 TRM still remain unanswered. For example: Where do these cells come from; What is the cellular origin of CD4 TRM cells; Which environmental signals maintain them into the tissue; and finally, Are CD4 TRM cells able to rapidly respond to a second challenge? 引用元:

In contrast, mechanistic understanding of dietary modulation of small intestine (SI) physiology, where the majority of dietary exposures and interactions take place remains elusive.  引用元:


However, the mechanisms and consequences of these multi-faceted interactions are still poorly understood.  引用元:

Which of the numerous cell subsets in a tumor contribute to the response, how their interactions are regulated, and how they are spatially organized within tumors remain poorly understood (Cardenas et al., 2021; Saltz et al., 2018). 引用元:


In the nervous system, although multiple families of guidance cues have been found in the last decade, our understanding of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms leading from the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton remains limited (Mueller 1999).  引用元:


Nevertheless, the true extent of TCR cross-reactivity, and its role in T cell immunity, remains a speculative issue, largely due to the absence of quantitative experimental approaches that could definitively address this question (Mason, 1998, Morris and Allen, 2012, Shih and Allen, 2004, Wilson et al., 2004, Wucherpfennig et al., 2007). 引用元:


However, understanding the precise molecular mechanisms influencing progenitor cells is precluded by limited knowledge of stromal cell identities in the lung. 引用元:

Mutations that cause TSC are spread over the entire sequences of both TSC1 and TSC2 (26,–29), but mechanistic understanding of the functional consequences is precluded by the lack of biochemical and structural information. 引用元:



The extent to which unidirectional differentiation hierarchies underlie tumor heterogeneity remains controversial (Visvader and Lindeman, 2012).


This raises the intriguing possibility that sensory neurons targeting distinct peripheral sites may contribute differently to immune responses by engaging in local tissue-specific sensory neuro-immune circuits. 引用元:




We hypothesize that mapping the routes toward tumorigenesis in precursors of MSI-H and MSS CRCs will uncover mechanisms that define the CRC cellular landscape and identify targets with diagnostic or therapeutic utility. 引用元:


only a subset of such genes is activated in response to a given signal. Thus, a central problem in signal transduction is how this specificity is achieved. 中略 An excellent model for studying this problem is provided by the virus-inducible enhancer of the human interferon-p (IFND) gene (reviewed by Maniatis et al., 1992; Thanos et al., 1993; Tjian and Maniatis, 1994).




Drosophila provides an attractive system to understand the logic of olfactory perception because flies exhibit complex behaviors controlled by an olfactory system that is anatomically and genetically simpler than that of vertebrates. 引用元:



  1. “using” vs “by using” それとも”by”, “with”? 実験・解析の手段・方法を表す語句を正しく選ぶ





Women like chocolate more than men.




‘… the starch yielded more glucose than maltose


say either
‘… than did maltose
‘… starch produced a greater yield of glucose than of maltose’.

(出典:Vernon Booth. Writing a Scientific Paper.Biochem. Soc. Trans. 3 (1) 1-26 (1975))




He also went to China.「彼”も”中国に行った」または、「彼は中国に”も”行った」 (


Contestant Amanda Hammer Harris tells the judges that her father was Jack Hammer, who wrote “Great Balls of Fire.” Growing up, she didn’t know him, but they made up just before he died. Contestant Amalia Watty also didn’t know her dad; she moved from Anguilla to New York to be near him, but that didn’t work out, so she uses the pain to motivate her singing. (


Bacon notes that studies can be enjoyable, and they can also be useful (whether for developing critical thinking skills or learning something for one’s profession). But he also notes that if done too much, studying could lead to “sloth”— laziness (in other words, if all you do is study, you won’t make the time to apply what you’ve learned and use your knowledge in a positive way). Bacon also believed that certain subjects could enhance different abilities— for example, mathematics can improve concentration, poetry can enhance one’s “wit” (what we today would call a sense of humor), and studying history can expand one’s wisdom.






use different terms for the same thing, for example, building, construction, obstacle and bluff body for one and the same study object. Yes, in high school you were probably taught to avoid repeating the same words, and to use comparisons and metaphors, etc. Forget that. ( ダメな論文を書くための10のコツ)




対処方法としては、this単独で使わずに、this observation,やthis resultのように意味をさらに限定すれば、読みやすくなるでしょう。また、代名詞を使うことを避けて、繰り返しをいとわずに同じ名詞をもう一度使えば曖昧さが生じません。



論文はcrystal clearに書けとよく言われます。通常の読者だけでなく、そそっかしい読者、英語が苦手な外国人、英語のスタイルが若干異なる英語圏の国の老若男女、英語のスタイルやイディオムの意味が多少変化しているかもしれない100年後の読者、その研究内容に関する知識が無い人などなど、どんな人が読んでも意味が一意にしか定まらないような英文を書くことが大切です。



  1. Single words and phrases that we see and often have to correct (Astronomy & Astrophysics) よくある英語の語法の間違いと、正しい使い方 一覧



  1. Liumbruno et al., How to write a scientific manuscript for publication. Blood Transfus. 2013 Apr; 11(2): 217–226. doi: 10.2450/2012.0247-12 PMCID: PMC3626472
  2. Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing Write what you mean, mean what you write For instance, we often speak informally of “going the extra mile”, “at the end of the day”, “hard facts”, things being “crystal clear”  …  if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity.