The authors identified early markers of three different cell lineages (trophectoderm, primitive endoderm, and epiblast) and found that, at early stages, cells coexpress markers for different lineages.
This then allowed them to identify early markers for cell lineage specification and show that expression of early marker genes significantly differed between inner and outer cells in the morula, confirming their role in early embryonic pattern formation.（論文 Cell）
Using specific markers for autophagosomes as well as cells lacking autophagy genes, recent studies provide new evidence that the autophagic machinery plays a role in the degradation of both extracellular bacterial pathogens that invade the cell (e.g., Group A Streptococcus) (Nakagawa et al., 2004) and true intracellular bacterial pathogens (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Shigella flexneri) (Gutierrez et al. 2004, Ogawa et al. 2004).
Activation of autophagy reversed the usual acidification defect observed in mycobacterial-containing phagosomes, resulted in colocalization of mycobacterial-containing phagosomes with markers of the late endocytic/lysosomal compartments and with the autophagy proteins (e.g., LC3 and Beclin 1), and decreased mycobacterial survival.（論文 Cell）
For example, it was initially discovered that lower-grade gliomas have a higher frequency of TP53 mutation and PDGFRA expression, thus classifying these two events as markers of secondary GBM.
These findings, on the one hand, demonstrate the need to identify additional markers for secondary GBM.（論文 Cell）
Retinal stratification with proper apical-basal polarity occurred, and markers of neural retina and pigment epithelium were expressed in a spatially correct manner.
Early markers of the distal (alveolar) airways were expressed early in culture but were lost later.
Expression of specific markers for each of these cell types confirmed the correct layering of the organoid walls.（論文 Cell）
Markers of primitive cells are often not fully specific for stem cells.
Daughter cells may briefly retain markers of signal reception such as Dad.（論文 Cell）
Evidence is also accumulating that satellite cells are not all alike but instead are heterogeneous in the genes they express; consequently the markers of such cells are not consistent.
The general lack of specific molecular markers for stem cells may be due either to the fact that better markers have yet to be discovered or that they simply do not exist.（論文 Cell）
In a cohort of 3,511 women, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) negatively correlated with two markers of oxidative stress, γ-glutamyltyrosine and γ-glutamylphenylalanine, as well as with two lysolipids that are positively associated with phospholipase A2 expression and may reflect poor membrane fluidity.
Correlative studies in humans and interventional studies in mice indicate that N-(carboxymethyl)lysine and methylglyoxal derivatives of glucose-protein or glucose-lipid interactions—which serve as markers for AGEs—accumulate in tissues and accelerate several manifestations of aging, including cognitive decline and metabolic syndrome.
Second, consistent molecular biomarkers of aging are lacking, which considerably complicates the assessment of the short- and long-term consequences of metabolic interventions on the aging process. （論文 Cell）
With a sufficiently large collection of cell models, one can correlate pathways and vulnerabilities with specific genetic lesions, providing invaluable insights into cancer biology, markers for patient selection in clinical trials, and potential new targets for cancer drug development. （論文 Cell）