大阪大学、類似画像データ論文の調査を打ち切り 本調査を行わないことを決定

      2015/04/11

多数の論文不正疑惑がインターネット上で匿名で指摘されていた問題ですが、最も多くの論文が挙げられていた大阪大学の対応が明らかになりました。

生命科学研究の論文約80本に画像の使い回しがあるとインターネット上で指摘された問題で、大阪大は8日、予備調査をしていた27本について、不正の事実を認めることはできず、調査を打ち切ると発表した。(毎日新聞 2015年04月08日

疑惑が指摘された大阪大学の論文は28報ですが、そのうち1報に関してはすでに著者が別件で懲戒解雇されていたため調査の対象から外したのだそうです。予備調査の対象とした27報のうち、19本はデータが残っていないため「これ以上の解明は困難」。7本は「不注意による誤使用」。使い回しが明確に否定できた論文はたったの一報しかなかったという結果。

匿名A氏が「捏造問題にもっと怒りを(日本の科学を考える)」のコメント欄に書き込んだ類似画像論文84報の中に、所属が大阪大学のものがちょうど28報ありましたので新聞報道と数が合います。しかし、判断が下された19本、7本、1本がどの論文かに関する情報がないため、信ずるに足る論文が一体どれなのか、サッパリわかりません。これらの論文の信頼性は読者自身で判断するしかないようです。研究者の便宜を図るために、論文タイトル、著者、所属まで含めたリストを改めて紹介しておきます(番号は、84報のリストの番号。画像類似性の指摘は、匿名A氏のコメントの転載)。

#1 Cleavage of CAD inhibitor in CAD activation and DNA degradation during apoptosis. Sakahira H, Enari M, Nagata S. Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan. Nature. 1998 Jan 1;391(6662):96-9.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1a. Lane 1 is similar to Lane 5. Lane 6 is similar to Lane 10.

#2  Specific chaperone-like activity of inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase for caspase-activated DNase. Sakahira H, Iwamatsu A, Nagata S. Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 17;275(11):8091-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 3A. Lane 3 is similar to Lane 8, 9, and 10. Fig 3B. Lane 1 is similar to Lane 2.

#3 Enzymatic active site of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and its inhibition by inhibitor of CAD. Sakahira H, Takemura Y, Nagata S.Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001 Apr 1;388(1):91-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2A. Lanes 2-3 are similar to lanes 9-10. Fig 4B. Lanes 2-3 are similar to lanes 9-10.

#4 Coordinated regulation of fat-specific and liver-specific glycerol channels, aquaporin adipose and aquaporin 9.Diabetes. Kuriyama H, Shimomura I, Kishida K, Kondo H, Furuyama N, Nishizawa H, Maeda N, Matsuda M, Nagaretani H, Kihara S, Nakamura T, Tochino Y, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y. Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan. 2002 Oct;51(10):2915-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 5. 18S of B is similar to that of C (horizontal flip).

#5 Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30. Maeda N, Shimomura I, Kishida K, Nishizawa H, Matsuda M, Nagaretani H, Furuyama N, Kondo H, Takahashi M, Arita Y, Komuro R, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Tochino Y, Okutomi K, Horie M, Takeda S, Aoyama T, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y. Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. Nat Med. 2002 Jul;8(7):731-7. Epub 2002 Jun 17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1b. +/- is partially similar to -/-. Fig 2. 18S of a is similar to that of b. Fig 5a. 28s of TNF-alpha(-) and Adiponectin(+) is similar to that of TNF-alpha(+) and Adiponectin(+).

#6 Angiopoietin-like protein 3 mediates hypertriglyceridemia induced by the liver X receptor. Inaba T, Matsuda M, Shimamura M, Takei N, Terasaka N, Ando Y, Yasumo H, Koishi R, Makishima M, Shimomura I. Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13;278(24):21344-51. Epub 2003 Apr 1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 5. Lane 2 is partially similar to lane3.

#60 Presenilin-1 mutations downregulate the signalling pathway of the unfolded-protein response. Katayama T, Imaizumi K, Sato N, Miyoshi K, Kudo T, Hitomi J, Morihara T, Yoneda T, Gomi F, Mori Y, Nakano Y, Takeda J, Tsuda T, Itoyama Y, Murayama O, Takashima A, St George-Hyslop P, Takeda M, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Nat Cell Biol. 1999 Dec;1(8):479-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 4a. Western(PS) of A246E is partially similar to that of delta E9.

#61 Increased production of beta-amyloid and vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress by an aberrant spliced form of presenilin 2. Sato N, Imaizumi K, Manabe T, Taniguchi M, Hitomi J, Katayama T, Yoneda T, Morihara T, Yasuda Y, Takagi T, Kudo T, Tsuda T, Itoyama Y, Makifuchi T, Fraser PE, St George-Hyslop P, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.  J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 19;276(3):2108-14. Epub 2000 Oct 12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1. Lanes N and H in Fig 1C are similar to Fig 1D.

#62 Disturbed activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducers by familial Alzheimer’s disease-linked presenilin-1 mutations. Katayama T, Imaizumi K, Honda A, Yoneda T, Kudo T, Takeda M, Mori K, Rozmahel R, Fraser P, George-Hyslop PS, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 16;276(46):43446-54. Epub 2001 Sep 10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1a and Fig 2a. Ten actin bands of Fig 1a are similar to those of Fig 2a.

#63 STAT3 deficiency in keratinocytes leads to compromised cell migration through hyperphosphorylation of p130(cas). Kira M, Sano S, Takagi S, Yoshikawa K, Takeda J, Itami S. Department of Dermatology, Course of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 12;277(15):12931-6. Epub 2002 Jan 25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 3b. PY20 of Src is similar to Lysate of Src.

#64 Adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin acts as a platelet-derived growth factor-BB-binding protein and regulates growth factor-induced common postreceptor signal in vascular smooth muscle cell. Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Maeda K, Kuriyama H, Okamoto Y, Kumada M, Hotta K, Nishida M, Takahashi M, Nakamura T, Shimomura I, Muraguchi M, Ohmoto Y, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y. Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka and First Institute of New Drug Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Tokushima, Japan. Circulation. 2002 Jun 18;105(24):2893-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2. ERK of Fig 2C is similar to that of Fig 2D (horizontally flip, change brightness and contrast).

#65 Functional cooperation among Ras, STAT5, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for full oncogenic activities of BCR/ABL in K562 cells. Sonoyama J, Matsumura I, Ezoe S, Satoh Y, Zhang X, Kataoka Y, Takai E, Mizuki M, Machii T, Wakao H, Kanakura Y. Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 8;277(10):8076-82. Epub 2002 Jan 4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 3. Cyclin D1 and actin of 694F are somewhat different with those of delta p85.

#66 Notch signals inhibit the development of erythroid/megakaryocytic cells by suppressing GATA-1 activity through the induction of HES1. Ishiko E, Matsumura I, Ezoe S, Gale K, Ishiko J, Satoh Y, Tanaka H, Shibayama H, Mizuki M, Era T, Enver T, Kanakura Y. Department of Hematology and Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.  J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11;280(6):4929-39. Epub 2004 Nov 24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2A. Bcl-2 and actin of ED(-) are similar to those of ED(+).

#67 GATA transcription factors inhibit cytokine-dependent growth and survival of a hematopoietic cell line through the inhibition of STAT3 activity.  Ezoe S, Matsumura I, Gale K, Satoh Y, Ishikawa J, Mizuki M, Takahashi S, Minegishi N, Nakajima K, Yamamoto M, Enver T, Kanakura Y. Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 1;280(13):13163-70. Epub 2005 Jan 25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 5E. The left four lanes of CHO-B are similar to the right four lanes of CHO-B.

#68 Activated cAMP-response element-binding protein regulates neuronal expression of presenilin-1. Mitsuda N, Ohkubo N, Tamatani M, Lee YD, Taniguchi M, Namikawa K, Kiyama H, Yamaguchi A, Sato N, Sakata K, Ogihara T, Vitek MP, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience and Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):9688-98. Epub 2000 Dec 14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2C. Lane +— is similar to Lane +-+-. Fig 5B. Lane 1 is similar to Lane 3.

#69  Induction of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation by the raloxifene analog LY117018 is differentially mediated by Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in vascular endothelial cells. Hisamoto K, Ohmichi M, Kanda Y, Adachi K, Nishio Y, Hayakawa J, Mabuchi S, Takahashi K, Tasaka K, Miyamoto Y, Taniguchi N, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 14;276(50):47642-9. Epub 2001 Oct 10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1B. Lane 2 is similar to Lane 4 (horizontally flip). Fig 5A. ERKs of lanes 1-4 are similar to those of lanes 5-8 (horizontally flip). Fig 7A. The upper two bands of pSG5 are similar to those of ER beta (horizontally flip).

#70 Estrogen induces the Akt-dependent activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells. Hisamoto K, Ohmichi M, Kurachi H, Hayakawa J, Kanda Y, Nishio Y, Adachi K, Tasaka K, Miyoshi E, Fujiwara N, Taniguchi N, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 2;276(5):3459-67. Epub 2000 Oct 23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 7B. pSG5 is similar to ER beta (horizontally flip).

#71 Inhibition of phosphorylation of BAD and Raf-1 by Akt sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. Mabuchi S, Ohmichi M, Kimura A, Hisamoto K, Hayakawa J, Nishio Y, Adachi K, Takahashi K, Arimoto-Ishida E, Nakatsuji Y, Tasaka K, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 6;277(36):33490-500. Epub 2002 Jun 26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1B. ERKs of lanes 1-3 are similar to those of lanes 4-6. Fig 3A. Lanes 1-2 of Caov-3 are similar to lanes 3-4 of Caov-3 (horizontally flip). Fig 4A. Lanes 1-2 of BAD are similar to lanes 3-4 of BAD. Fig 6B. Phospho-Raf of Lane 2 is similar to that of Lane 5.

#72 Estrogen inhibits paclitaxel-induced apoptosis via the phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Mabuchi S, Ohmichi M, Kimura A, Nishio Y, Arimoto-Ishida E, Yada-Hashimoto N, Tasaka K, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Endocrinology. 2004 Jan;145(1):49-58. Epub 2003 Sep 18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 3B. Akt of lanes 1-2 is similar to that of lanes 3-4.

#73 Inhibition of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB phosphorylation increases the efficacy of paclitaxel in in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer models. Mabuchi S, Ohmichi M, Nishio Y, Hayasaka T, Kimura A, Ohta T, Kawagoe J, Takahashi K, Yada-Hashimoto N, Seino-Noda H, Sakata M, Motoyama T, Kurachi H, Testa JR, Tasaka K, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka, Japan. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 15;10(22):7645-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1D. Akt of lanes 1-2 is similar to that of lanes 3-4.

#74 Tamoxifen inhibits cell proliferation via mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in human ovarian cancer cell lines in a manner not dependent on the expression of estrogen receptor or the sensitivity to cisplatin. Mabuchi S, Ohmichi M, Kimura A, Ikebuchi Y, Hisamoto K, Arimoto-Ishida E, Nishio Y, Takahashi K, Tasaka K, Murata Y. Departmentof Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Endocrinology. 2004 Mar;145(3):1302-13. Epub 2003 Nov 26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 8B. Lane 1 of A2780 is similar to Lane 3 of Caov-3.

#75 Inhibition of NFkappaB increases the efficacy of cisplatin in in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer models. Mabuchi S, Ohmichi M, Nishio Y, Hayasaka T, Kimura A, Ohta T, Saito M, Kawagoe J, Takahashi K, Yada-Hashimoto N, Sakata M, Motoyama T, Kurachi H, Tasaka K, Murata Y. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28;279(22):23477-85. Epub 2004 Mar 16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2A. Lanes 2-4 of actin are similar to lanes 6-8 of actin (horizontally flip).

#76 Characterization of the yeast Cdc7p/Dbf4p complex purified from insect cells. Its protein kinase activity is regulated by Rad53p. Kihara M, Nakai W, Asano S, Suzuki A, Kitada K, Kawasaki Y, Johnston LH, Sugino A. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 10;275(45):35051-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu…  Fig 7C. Lanes i, j and k of abDbf4p are somewhat similar.

#77 Two distinct signaling pathways in hair cycle induction: Stat3-dependent and -independent pathways. Sano S, Kira M, Takagi S, Yoshikawa K, Takeda J, Itami S. Departments of Dermatology and Social and Environmental Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Dec 5;97(25):13824-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 4A. The most upper figure of insulin is similar to that of IGF-1.

#78 Tumor necrosis factor induces Bcl-2 and Bcl-x expression through NFkappaB activation in primary hippocampal neurons. Tamatani M, Che YH, Matsuzaki H, Ogawa S, Okado H, Miyake S, Mizuno T, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0872, Japan. J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 26;274(13):8531-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 5C. In the Ad5IkB lane, Bcl-2 is similar to Bcl-x (horizontally flip and vertically enlarge). In the Ad5LacZ+TNF lane, Bcl-2 is partially similar to Bcl-x (vertically enlarge).

#79 Vascular endothelial growth factor rescues hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced toxicity: signal transduction cascades. Matsuzaki H, Tamatani M, Yamaguchi A, Namikawa K, Kiyama H, Vitek MP, Mitsuda N, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. FASEB J. 2001 May;15(7):1218-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 1A. Akt of Cont is similar to that of VEGF.

#80 ORP150 protects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal death. Tamatani M, Matsuyama T, Yamaguchi A, Mitsuda N, Tsukamoto Y, Taniguchi M, Che YH, Ozawa K, Hori O, Nishimura H, Yamashita A, Okabe M, Yanagi H, Stern DM, Ogawa S, Tohyama M. Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. Nat Med. 2001 Mar;7(3):317-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2a. Actin of Astrocytes is similar to that of another paper (Fig 5C in J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 2;276(5):3046-53. Epub 2000 Oct 20.)

#81 14-3-3 Interacts directly with and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic Bax. Nomura M, Shimizu S, Sugiyama T, Narita M, Ito T, Matsuda H, Tsujimoto Y. Department of Post-genomics & Diseases, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 17;278(3):2058-65. Epub 2002 Nov 7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu… Fig 2. wt is similar to delta alpha 1.

大学側が事の重大さを深刻に受け止めているのであれば、「不注意による誤使用」を繰り返す研究室から出た論文を、現在に至るまで全て調べるくらいのことをしてもよかったのではないでしょうか?ちなみに、熊本大学と大阪市立大学の例では、疑義申し立てを受けた論文9報だけでなく同じ研究室から出された他の論文272報も調査対象としています(記事)。論文は批判的に読むものとはいえ(記事)、同じ写真の使いまわしまで心配しながら読まないといけないのだとしたら、あまりにも馬鹿げています。

これほど大量の「類似画像」論文を指摘され世間の耳目を大いに集めたにもかかわらず、具体的な説明もなしに「不正を認めない」の一言で済ませるのは、文科省が示す「不正行為への対応のガイドライン」からかけ離れてみえます。

科学研究における不正行為は、科学を冒涜し、人々の科学への信頼を揺るがし、科学の発展を妨げるものであって、本来あってはならないものである。

不正行為とは、研究者倫理に背馳し、研究活動や研究成果の発表の本質ないし本来の趣旨を歪め、研究者コミュニティの正常な科学的コミュニケーションを妨げる行為に他ならない。

不正行為は、科学そのものに対する背信行為であり、研究費の多寡や出所の如何を問わず絶対に許されない。これらのことを個々の研究者はもとより、研究者コミュニティや大学・研究機関、研究費の配分機関は理解して、不正行為に対して厳しい姿勢で臨まなければならない。

不正行為の問題は、知の生産活動である研究活動における「知の品質管理」の問題として捉えることができる。公表した研究成果に誤りや不正行為があることに気づいたら、直ちに研究者コミュニティに公表し、取り下げることが必要である。

(文部科学省 研究活動の不正行為への対応のガイドラインについて 研究活動の不正行為に関する特別委員会報告書(要旨)より)

参考

  1. 大阪大:論文疑惑 予備調査27本の調査打ち切り (毎日新聞 2015年04月08日)
  2. 27論文で不正なし=ネット指摘で調査-大阪大(時事ドットコム2015/04/08):”27本のうち、不注意による図の誤使用が7本、実験ノートなどが残っておらず同一画像とも別画像とも断定できなかったものが19本あり、同一画像ではないと判断できたのは1本のみだった。断定できなかった19本の画像は、いずれも論文の結論に影響を与えず、データも残っていないため、本調査などは行わないという。”
  3. <大阪大>論文疑惑 予備調査27本の調査打ち切り (gooニュース/毎日新聞2015年4月8日):”大阪大と同様に疑惑が指摘された九州大は今年3月、「画像の取り違えや臓器名の誤記などがあったが、故意ではなく、実験結果は科学的に正しかった」とする調査結果を公表した。”
  4. 『3位じゃダメなんです。』(大阪大学ニュース&トピックス 2015年1月16日)
  5. 酷似する画像を含む生命科学論文がインターネット上で大量に指摘される
  6. 熊本大学と大阪市立大学が光山勝慶研究室の論文10報を不正と認定
  7. 正しい論文の読み方: 「すべての論文は 嘘だと思って読みなさい」

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